李明杰,李瑞龙.物质形态与文本意义:麦肯锡文本社会学理论与方法述评[J].中国图书馆学报,2020,(4):115~125
Material Forms and Textual Meaning:Review of Donald Francis McKenzie's Theory and Methodology of Sociology of Text
物质形态与文本意义:麦肯锡文本社会学理论与方法述评
Received:September 04, 2019  Revised:November 09, 2019
DOI:
Key words:Donald FMcKenzie  Sociology of texts  Material bibliography  Literary criticism  Deduction
中文关键词:  麦肯锡  文本社会学  实物目录学  文学批评  演绎法
基金项目:
Author NameAffiliation
LI Mingjie 武汉大学信息管理学院 武汉430072 
LI Ruilong 武汉大学信息管理学院 武汉430072 
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Abstract:
In history of books and reading,McKenzie's sociology of texts is a widely accepted theory. This theory mainly stemmed from bibliography but assimilated ideas of literary criticism,the Annales and Saussurean Linguistics. Basing on Zima's intertextuality theory,McKenzie's sociology of texts thought emphasizes that the material forms of books and non-book texts both as texts contain marks of printing,reading,collection and revision. This theory has combined the physical forms and meaning of texts,associated bibliography with literary criticism,and broadened the research field of Physical Bibliography. As an interdisciplinary theory,it opened up a new school of history of book and reading study that focused on the relationship of readers,physical forms and meaning of texts in the 1980s to the 1990s.
According to the study of printing process in the 17th and the 18th centuries in England,McKenzie concluded the principle of printing as “concurrent production”,which means that the printing process was in a complex and highly volatile contexts,and this principle should apply to production of all kinds of texts. McKenzie's sociology of texts transcended the “pure” bibliography. Some bibliographers like Greg concerned only the symbolic meaning within texts,which was considered as fixed,and their study excluded the affections which were not from authors. However,McKenzie stated that if a medium in any sense effected a message,then bibliography could not exclude from its own proper concerns the relation between form,function,and symbolic meaning. Furthermore,the texts McKenzie studied were not only written or printed signs on pieces of paper or parchment,but also oral,visual and digital forms. All forms of texts could be object of bibliography. At the same time,sociology of texts claimed the role of physical forms in literary criticism. Before McKenzie,literary criticism mostly considered texts as self-contained,which could reveal themselves. So texts were always studied separately,or with a specific element like authors or readers. This study could not reveal the structures and connections within texts. McKenzie thought that except for texts themselves,authors,readers and text forms also mattered in the construction and understanding of textual meaning. He tried to associate bibliography with literary criticism,and promote a comprehensive study of texts.
Along with the new idea of “concurrent production”,McKenzie also suggested that bibliography needed a new methodology. He thought that as a bibliographical methodology,deduction applied more than induction. Bibliography was characterized by multiple and ingenious hypotheses,and a narrow range of theories was less likely to embrace the complex possibilities of organization within even a quite small printing house. Truths derived by induction were always vulnerable and subject to modification when new evidence came to hand. With deduction,distinctions of different cases may be entertained,and the hypothetical nature of bibliography could be retained. By insisting on the rigorous test,deductive procedures would bring a healthy critical spirit into the subject.
This paper is a review of McKenzie's sociology of texts based on McKenzie's book Bibliography and Sociology of Texts ,a collection of his essays Making Meaning:“Printers of the Mind” and Other Essaysand reference to relevant studies of other western scholars. 23 refs.
中文摘要:
      以齐马提出的文本“互文性”为基础,麦肯锡的文本社会学强调文本包括书籍以外的其他非书籍的物质形态,而这些物质形态保存了人类社会在印刷、阅读、收藏和校订等活动中留下的各种印记。对文本物质形态的制作及使用过程的历史考察,构成了实物目录学的重要内容。麦肯锡的文本社会学理论将文本的物质形态与文本意义紧密结合在一起,跨越了目录学和文学批评的界限。一方面超越了以格雷格为代表的只关注文本内容的“纯粹”的目录学理论;另一方面指出研究文本形式的表达功能对文学批评的价值。在研究方法上,麦肯锡针对目录学界长期习惯使用的归纳法在逻辑上的不足,提出以演绎法取而代之。麦肯锡文本社会学理论和方法对欧美书籍史和阅读史研究产生了深远的影响。参考文献23。
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