于良芝,王俊丽.从普适技能到嵌入实践——国外信息素养理论与实践回顾[J].中国图书馆学报,2020,(2):38~55
From Context-independent Skills to Embedded Practice: A Review of Information Literacy Research and Practice
从普适技能到嵌入实践——国外信息素养理论与实践回顾
Received:January 18, 2020  
DOI:
Key words:Information literacy  Concept of information literacy  Theories of information literacy  Information literacy education  Paradigms of information literacy
中文关键词:  信息素养  信息素养定义  信息素养理论  信息素养教育  信息素养范式
基金项目:本文系国家自然科学基金项目“教育模式对信息分化的影响及作用机理研究——基于实践理论和信息经验中介作用的考察”(编号:71974103)的研究成果之一
Author NameAffiliation
YU Liangzhi 南开大学商学院信息资源管理系 天津 300071 
WANG Junli 南开大学商学院信息资源管理系 天津 300071 
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Abstract:
This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reflective review of the development of the domain of information literacy abroad since the concept of information literacy was coined in the 1970s. Based on related literature published in major English journals from then until now, this paper reviews the development of information literacy from three interrelated aspects: the conceptualization of information literacy, theories for and of information literacy, and approaches to information literacy education. It shows that, while initially defined as the ability to recognize when information is needed and the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information, the concept of information literacy has undergone a series of redefinition, including the redefinition of it as contextualized knowledge and skills, as a metaliteracy, and as a practice. It shows that since the 1980s, research and education of information literacy have been informed by a wide range of theories, the most notable including the constructivist learning theory, social constructivist learning theory, phenomenography, critical pedagogy, critical literacy, sociocultural theory, sociotechnical theory, social constructionism, practice theory, etc. It is the social constructivist learning theory and sociocultural theory that most notably informed the redefinition of information literacy as contextualized knowledge and skills; it is the critical theories and practice theory that most markedly informed the redefinition of information literacy as a metaliteracy and as a practice. Different theories and definitions of information literacy have also instigated different approaches to information literacy education. The diversity of practical approaches is demonstrated most tellingly by the differences between ACRL's The Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, the various discipline-based information literacy standards (e.g., Information literacy standards for science and engineering/technology) and ACRL's Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. The interrelated developments of conceptualization, theories and education practice have produced some sweeping changes across the whole information literacy domain, which in turn, have given rise to what this study calls three paradigms of information literacy: the paradigm of context-independent skill, the paradigm of context-dependent skill and the paradigm of embedded practice. The comparison of the three paradigms further reveals that it is fundamental epistemological divisions within library and information science that underlie the shift of the paradigms. As part of the major practical implications from the study, these findings may inform information literacy educators that it is too simplistic to choose their education approaches believing that the latest paradigm is the best; the research findings also suggest that, whichever paradigm information literacy educators choose to guide their program design, they need to take the cultivation of students long-term sustaining tendency for active information access into consideration, in addition to the skills, knowledge and practical understandings stipulated by current information literacy standards/frameworks. 2 tabs. 68 refs.
中文摘要:
      20世纪70年代,在信息技术迅速发展和信息资源日益重要的背景下,信息素养概念产生。随后,美国图书馆界率先将书目指导业务转型为信息素养教育,信息素养也成为图书馆情报学的重要研究领域。本文主要依据国外信息素养领域文献及其他相关文献,对信息素养概念、理论、实践的演进进行了比较全面的分析和总结,旨在为国内同仁从全局角度理解国外信息素养领域的各种变化,提供线索和洞见。研究发现:国外信息素养领域对早期信息素养概念进行了四种不同性质的修正及两次颠覆性改变,引进和发展了多种相关理论,包括各种流派的建构主义学习理论、各种批判理论和实践理论,实施了不同路径的信息素养教育实践;这些相互影响的发展变化导致了三种信息素养范式的出现:普适技能范式、情境化能力范式和嵌入实践范式。通过对已有范式的反思,本文提出未来信息素养研究和实践应将培养持久的信息获取利用习惯纳入考量范围。表2。参考文献68。
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