文章摘要

傅才武,王文德.农村文化惠民工程的“弱参与”及其改革策略——来自全国21省282个行政村的调查[J].中国图书馆学报,2020,46(5):54~73
农村文化惠民工程的“弱参与”及其改革策略——来自全国21省282个行政村的调查
“Weak Participation” in Rural Cultural Benefiting Project and Its Reform Strategy:A Survey from 282 Administrative Villages in 21 Provinces Across the Country
投稿时间:2020-02-13  
DOI:
中文关键词: 农村公共文化服务  文化惠民工程  项目制  居民满意度  文化消费
英文关键词: Rural public cultural service  Cultural benefiting project  Project system  Satisfactory level of residentsCultural consumption
基金项目:本文系国家社会科学基金艺术学重大项目“乡村振兴战略中的文化建设研究”(编号:18ZD24)的研究成果之一
作者单位
傅才武 武汉大学国家文化发展研究院 湖北 武汉 430072 
王文德 武汉大学国家文化发展研究院 湖北 武汉 430072 
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中文摘要:
      由政府主导的文化惠民工程项目在促进基层农村文化建设方面发挥了积极作用,但同时其绩效问题也引发了广泛争议——文化惠民工程在国家政策层面上应该弱化还是应该加强?武汉大学“文化第一线”课题组于2018年对全国21省282个行政村开展调查,发现:当前农村居民存在较强的公共文化服务需求,对文化惠民工程持基本认可态度,但期望率高、满意率低,表现出一种“弱参与”(假性参与或象征参与)特征;在政府供给侧,文化惠民工程的服务质量、服务态度、场地环境和设施设备等因素对农村居民的认可度存在显著影响,在受众的消费侧,性别、年龄、职业、文化程度和家庭收入等社会人口学变量和行政村至城区的距离显著影响农村居民的认可度;居民认可度受到政府供给侧与居民自身文化资本状况的制约,农村文化惠民工程的政府供给规模与居民认可度之间是一种非对称关系,并不完全受到供给侧的服务质量和投入规模的控制。这一结论表明,农村居民对公共服务的接受和消费是一个基于自身素质条件和偏好的选择性接受过程,一味强化供给侧的产品质量或者投入规模也难以提升农村居民的认可度并重建文化惠民工程的合理性,这种情况对计划体制下形成的文化惠民工程格式化管理(纵向控制)思路提出了挑战。文化惠民工程的“悬浮化”和“弱参与”特征,要求确立供需双侧协同改革的总体转型思路,借助于数字信息技术平台建立“国家—个人”文化消费激励机制,确立消费侧政策创新引领农村公共文化服务转型的政策路径,并探索乡镇公私混合型文化主体模式以建设农村基层新型文化共享空间。图1。表9。参考文献66。
英文摘要:
The cultural benefiting project (CPB),led by the government in rural areas since the 1990s,has caused widespread controversy because of performance issues even though they played an active role in promoting grass-roots rural cultural construction For CPB and other related grass-roots public cultural institutions,whether their public investment is reasonable and whether it is legal in the national policy have become critical theoretical issues of concern to academia and the government To explore what factors affect the demand and satisfaction of rural CPB,we build an acceptance model for the CPB,and the model involves both sides of supply and demand We employed the categorical regression (CATREG) to analyze survey the data collected from 282 administrative villages in 21 provinces by Wuhan University's “Culture Frontline” research group in 2018 It found that there is a strong demand for public cultural services for rural residents,and they generally agree with the CBP,but their expectation level is high,while satisfactory level is low,proving that current rural cultural participation is a “weak participation” (Non-participation or Tokenism). The result also shows that for the supply-side(the government),the service quality,service attitude,environment,facilities and equipment of the projects provided have a significant impact on the approval degree to the CBP of rural residents;for the consumer-side audience,their gender,age,occupation,education,and family income,and the distance from the administrative village to the urban area significantly affect the approval degree of rural residents The approval degree is affected by both the quality of the cultural service provided by the government and the cultural capital of residents rather than entirely influenced by the service quality and investment scale of the supply-side It indicates that the acceptance and consumption of public services by rural residents is a selective acceptance based on their cultural capital and preferences Blindly strengthening supply-side product quality or investment scale may not increase the approval degree of rural residents and rebuild the rationality of the CBP It challenges the formative management (vertical control) of the CBP formed under the planning system The characteristics of suspension and weak participation of the CBP require the establishment of an overall transformation of the supply-demand bilateral reform,the establishment of a “nation-individual” cultural consumption incentive mechanism by the digital information technology platforms,and the establishment of consumer-side policy innovation to guide rural public culture policy path for service transformation.
We propose an acceptance model of residents based on the principle of public choice. It theoretically clarifies the long-standing debate of “low performance caused by insufficient investment” or “unreasonable investment caused by low performance” in cultural theory and practice,which establishes the policy basis for deepening the reform of the grass-roots cultural system However,the policy measures proposed in this study are mainly from the demand-side and inadequate in investigation and discussion on supply-side reform such as a central-branch system in public libraries and cultural centers at the county level In future research,we will further discuss the possibility of the central-branch system in cultural policy as a reform path,and to explore public-private partnership of cultural ownership in the countryside in order to build new shared cultural spaces at the rural grassroots level1 fig9 tabs66 refs.
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