文章摘要

周文博,于良芝.LIS的社区实践及其理论遗产——从社区图书馆到社群信息学的理论视角回顾[J].中国图书馆学报,2020,(5):22~35
LIS的社区实践及其理论遗产——从社区图书馆到社群信息学的理论视角回顾
Community-based Practices in LIS and their Theoretical Legacies:A Review of Theoretical Perspectives from Community Librarianship to Community Informatics
投稿时间:2020-01-11  修订日期:2020-07-10
DOI:
中文关键词: LIS  社区图书馆运动  社区网络运动  社群信息学  理论遗产
英文关键词: LIS  Community librarianship  Community networking movement  Community informatics  Theoretical legacy  
基金项目:本文系国家自然科学基金项目“教育模式对信息分化的影响及作用机理研究——基于实践理论和信息经验中介作用的考察”(编号:71974103)的研究成果之一
作者单位
周文博 南开大学商学院信息资源管理系 天津 300071 
于良芝 南开大学商学院信息资源管理系 天津 300071 
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中文摘要:
      本文回顾20世纪后半叶以来国外图书馆信息学界开展或参与的三大社区实践运动——社区图书馆运动、社区网络运动和社群信息学,揭示其背后的理论基础,并分析这些理论思想如何推动了三大运动的产生和发展,阐释它们对我国农村社区信息服务项目的启迪。分析发现,国外LIS的三大社区实践主要受到社区主义、社会资本理论、信息平等思想和社会技术理论的指导,这些理论对我国LIS相关社区实践具有启迪作用:战略层面的社区赋能导向,功能层面的社区中心定位,技术研发中的本地情境意识,服务供给中的弱势群体优先原则。参考文献46。
英文摘要:
During the past half century,the international LIS sector has initiated or taken part in three community-based movements,namely community librarianship,community networking movement and community informatics. The purpose of this paper is three fold:to review these movements based on related publications in English since the 1960s,to examine their theoretical foundations and to analyze how these theories informed the emergence and development of these movements. It then explicates their lessons for China's rural information service projects (such as the National Cultural Information Resource Sharing Project and the Rural Library Project). The analysis shows that international LIS sector's community-based practices were informed most notably by four theoretical perspectives,including communitarianism,social capital theory,information equality and sociotechnical theory.
Under the perspective of communitarianism,these three community-based movements were all aspired by the critical role that communities play in social development. They emphasize community empowerment,community revitalization,community identity consciousness,and excavation and protection of community cultural heritage,and position themselves as platforms for interaction and communication among community members,and hubs for community information and organizations. Under the perspective of social capital theory,these movements focus on strengthening the communication and cooperation of community members by providing them with information services and information exchange space. At the same time,they also emphasize the important role of non-discriminatory public facilities in enhancing the trust between citizens and the government (society),which they believe are conducive to social capitals of the community. Under the guidance of the idea of information equality,these three community movements emphasize library and information profession's duty to protect all community residents right for equal access to information. From the perspective of social technology theory,community network movement and community informatics focus on the interaction between information technology and community context,emphasizing that information technology design and development should be sensitive to community needs and should aim to achieve real integration between information technology and community. 
Although very few LIS initiatives amount to community-based movements in China,the Chinese library and information sector has always been active participant in government-led community development projects. This paper believes that the community-based practices and theories of the international LIS sector reviewed in this paper can provide important lessons for LIS participation in China's rural development projects. These include,among others,to target at community empowerment at the strategic level,to define rural libraries as community centers at the functional level,to be sensitive to local contexts in technological design and to prioritize vulnerable groups in service supply. 46 refs.
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