文章摘要

于良芝,樊振佳.图书馆信息学的逻辑架构及历史轨迹:基于推理 与史实的学科独特性思考[J].中国图书馆学报,2020,46(4):4~19
图书馆信息学的逻辑架构及历史轨迹:基于推理 与史实的学科独特性思考
The Logical Structure and Historical Path of Library and Information Science: Reflection Based on Deduction and Reasoning
投稿时间:2020-06-22  修订日期:2020-06-29
DOI:
中文关键词: 图书馆学  图书馆信息学  学科基础概念  学科逻辑架构  学科发展史
英文关键词: Library science  Library and information science  Concepts of library and information science  Logical structure of library and information science  History of library and information science
基金项目:
作者单位
于良芝 南开大学信息资源管理系 天津 300071 
樊振佳 南开大学信息资源管理系 天津 300071 
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中文摘要:
      20世纪后半叶至21世纪初,人类知识在信息领域出现了比较集中的增长和分化,形成了明显的信息相关学科群。面对新兴信息学科的挑战,本世纪的世界图书馆信息学(LIS)界主要采取了淡化自身独特性、强调学科交叉融合的发展策略。本文在质疑这一策略的基础上,旨在围绕彰显学科独特性实现三个目的:①梳理图书馆学和LIS共享的基础概念体系;②从上述概念体系出发,推导出与之相适应的学科逻辑架构;③从上述逻辑架构出发反观从传统图书馆学到LIS的历史轨迹,反思这一发展过程的内在必然性和不彻底性。本研究的结论主要建立在推理和对史实的思考之上。梳理出了包括数据、意义、知识、信息、文献、社会交流系统、图书馆、信息用户在内的学科基础概念,推导出由信息有效查询和有效获取相关问题主导的三层次(哲学相关理论、科学理论和技术)学科架构。从LIS的逻辑架构反观从传统图书馆学向LIS的演化轨迹,可以得出若干重要启示,包括:融贯的LIS比传统图书馆学更接近于这一逻辑架构,因而更适合作为统一学科立足于信息学科群;淡化自身独特性的发展战略有可能导致LIS更加偏离自身的逻辑架构,甚至有可能导致其解体;而一旦LIS解体,传统图书馆学的独立存在价值也难免受到削弱。与淡化自身独特性的发展策略相反,本文认为,通过在新信息环境中凸显自身独特性、重新定义信息有效查询与有效获取的含义,LIS有可能在维护自身统一性的前提下,拓展发展空间,并奠定与其他学科交叉渗透的稳固基石。图5。表1。参考文献56。
英文摘要:
Against the backdrops of an increasing proliferation/specialization of information-related disciplines and their challenges for library and information science (LIS),this study aims to achieve three purposes. 1) To reveal the constellation of the most fundamental concepts underpinning the traditional library science and the more recent LIS; 2) To deduce from these concepts the logical structure of LIS's body of knowledge; 3)To reflects on LIS actual development path by comparing it to the deduced logical structure. The major method applied to achieve the above purposes is logical deduction plus fact-based reasoning.
The study shows that the minimum constellation of concepts (minimum in that it is enough to explain the existence of libraries) for both the traditional library science and LIS consists of the concepts of data,meaning,knowledge,information,document,society's communication system,library,and information users. This conceptual constellation further shows that libraries exist as a part of society's mechanism to ensure effective and efficient information search and access,which forms the basis for defining the library and information profession in society's division of labour and defining LIS in the world's knowledge domain. This study also shows that,to support the mission of the library and information profession,LIS needs to take questions concerning information search and information access as its primary questions,and to develop related philosophical or meta theories,scientific or empirically obtained theories,and a variety of technologies to form the body of its knowledge.
Looking at the actual development path of the discipline in light of this logical structure,it is clear that the proposal of a library science in the 19th century failed to recognize that library is only part of a bigger picture and that this failure was part of the reason why documentation emerged in early 20th century. It is also clear that the merger between the traditional library science and the documentation-based information science conforms better to the discipline's logical structure as identified by this study,and represents a commendable move towards developing a logically unified discipline to support society's information search and access. However,due to the lack of explicit and systematic elucidation of the discipline's logical structure in the decades following the merger,LIS has not been a solidly integrated discipline. As iSchool mobilizes all possible resources,including all information components within LIS,to build iField,there is a great danger that LIS will be ruptured again to free the information components from it. This would leave a discipline of librarianship to stand on its own once more,except that it will stand on a much weaker position than the traditional librarianship or library science prior to the formation of LIS. 5 figs. 1 tab. 56 refs.
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