文章摘要

李芙蓉,高萌妤.美国高校儿童图书馆学课程研究[J].中国图书馆学报,2020,(3):113~127
美国高校儿童图书馆学课程研究
Youth-oriented Library Courses in American Higher Education
投稿时间:2020-03-09  修订日期:2020-04-17
DOI:
中文关键词: 图书馆情报学教育  儿童图书馆学教育  少儿服务  学校图书馆
英文关键词: LIS education  ELSY  Youth services  School librarianship
基金项目:
作者单位
李芙蓉 上海大学图书情报档案系 上海 200444 
高萌妤 上海大学图书情报档案系 上海 200444 
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中文摘要:
      美国儿童图书馆学教育发端于19世纪末20世纪初,儿童图书馆学课程建设已有超过百年的历史。本文首先梳理了53个ALA认证的硕士学位教育项目和34个AASL-CAEP认证的学校图书馆硕士教育项目,系统展示了美国高校儿童图书馆学教育的概貌;然后筛选出84所高校的603门ELSY课程,并对这些课程进行了统计与内容分析。当前,美国ELSY课程按主题可区分为六大类型:文献类、服务类、管理类、职业类、研究类和实习类。ELSY课程有超过1/3(约占39%)为文献类课程,其核心内容为文献知识;有约1/4(约占26%)为服务类课程;实习类课程约占16%,每个学校都至少有一门实习类课程;管理类、职业类课程较少,分别占比8%和6%,并非每个学校都开设了此类课程;研究类课程占比最少,约占5%,是美国ELSY课程的短板。美国在ELSY课程内容建设上的经验与问题,可为我国设立和发展儿童图书馆学课程提供借鉴。表7。参考文献47。
英文摘要:
The history of education for library service to youth (ELSY)in America dates back to the late 19th century when Pratt Institute first offered a course on children's librarianship in 1899 In the past one hundred years,many youth-oriented courses have been built The paper focuses on the content of youth-oriented library curriculum Firstly,53 ALA-accredited master's programs in library and information studies and 34 AASL-CAEP school librarianship education programs are analyzed to show the general picture of ELSY in American higher education Secondly,603 youth-oriented courses from fifty-three ALA-accredited master's programs and thirty-one AASL-CAEP accredited school library programs are selected and classified.
A content analysis of those courses reveals that youth-oriented library curriculum cover six main categories:materials,services,management,librarianship,research and field experience Courses on literatures and materials dominate ELSY curriculum,and 39% of those courses focus on the teaching of children's and young adults literatures,covering topics such as selection,cataloging,evaluation,utilization and etc26% of the courses deal with youth services Courses on field experience are offered in all universities Courses on management and librarianship have not received much attention,with a ratio of 8% and 6% respectively Only 5% of the courses are related to research,which is the least-emphasized topic in ELSY.
Courses on materials have a long history in ELSY,which can be further divided into several categories according to age of readers,usually including children's literature and adolescent literature Some courses pay a great deal of attention to materials for special groups such as ethnic minorities,aborigines and special families New forms of materials such as comics,digital media,are also the content of some youth materials courses.
Courses on services are gaining increasingly attention in ELSY Storytelling is the most important topic taught in youth services curriculum Services for special groups and technology's impacts on youth services are also included in ELSY curriculum.
Field experience is very special in ELSY Knowledge is not taught by instructors but acquired from real work Students in the field of school librarianship have to take these courses by doing internship in school libraries New technology makes virtual internship possible.
Managing the youth library covers topics on policy making,staff management,general management and etc Although management is important in practice,only a small number of courses cover the topic School library management is the main focus.
Youth librarianship covers topics such as youth advocacy,censorship and intellectual freedom,philosophy of youth services,professional resources,professional development,and etc Those topics are the foundation of youth services but receive little attention However,intellectual freedom is frequently emphasized in the curriculum.
Courses on research are child-centered,focusing on youth culture and identity,youth development,reading ability,reading needs and interests,and information needs and interests These courses have the smallest proportion in ELSY,reflecting the shortcomings of the training of children's librarians in LIS education.
In general,materials and youth services are the two most-emphasized topics in ELSY,with new content incorporated constantly The knowledge of managing the youth library and youth librarianship has not received sufficient attention in the curriculum The lack of courses on children as persons is a shortcoming of the content of ELSY,which shows the direction of content construction of ELSY curriculum in the future 7 tabs 47 refs.
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