文章摘要

胡小菁.文献编目:从数字化到数据化[J].中国图书馆学报,2019,45(3):49~61
文献编目:从数字化到数据化
Cataloging from Digitization to Datafication
投稿时间:2019-03-23  
DOI:
中文关键词: 文献编目  关联数据  数字化  数据化
英文关键词: Cataloging  Linked data  Digitization  Datafication
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
胡小菁 华东师范大学图书馆,上海 200062 xjhu@library.ecnu.edu.cn.orcid,xjhu@library.ecnu.edu.cn.orcid 
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中文摘要:
      近十年来,文献编目领域从理论模型、标准规范到实践应用,均发生了自机读目录问世以来的最大变化。这个变化与关联数据技术的应用直接相关,可以概括为从数字化到数据化,也就是书目数据由机器可读走向机器可操作,进而融入互联网全球数据库。在此过程中,编目界经历了观念上的重要变更(从记录到数据),厘清了混淆的概念(实体及其名称与描述),重新对书目数据建模,并展开了一系列实践。其中,作为应用的重要组成部分,数据基础设施在数据化中发挥着重要作用。图1。参考文献43。
英文摘要:
In the past decade, the great change has taken place in the field of cataloging from theoretical models and standards to applications since the invention of Machine Readable Cataloging (MARC). This change is directly related to linked data technology and can be summarized as cataloging from digitization to datafication, i.e., bibliographic data from machine readable to machine actionable for integrating into the Web. Cataloging community experienced important changes in concepts (from records to data), clarified confused concepts (entities and their names and descriptions), re modeled bibliographic data, and engaged in various experiments and programs.
First, the focus of cataloging transforms from records to data. In the theoretical model, IFLA paid attention to “the basic level national bibliographic record” in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR). But Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) “focuses on data, regardless of how it may be packaged”. A recordless environment is gradually being formed. In cataloging rules, Resource Description & Access (RDA) emphasized the core elements, but the new RDA (Toolkit Beta Site) abandons the core elements. In metadata format, BIBFRAME and RDA vocabularies clearly identify different data which are confused in MARC.
Second, concepts between entities and their names and descriptions are clearly distinguished. IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM) defines Nomen as an entity. Authority control becomes entity management and no longer relies on the uniform form of a name. To distinguish between entities (Real World Objects) and their descriptions (such as authority records), MARC21 adds new subfield $1 that records the identity of the entity itself.
Third, data are modeled as RDF vocabularies. Different vocabularies have different classes and properties. Although BIBFRAME vocabulary and RDA vocabulary are very different in class or entity identification, BIBFRAME can use with RDA as a content standard.
Finally, datafication is in practice. Library of Congress (LC)'s Bibliographic Framework Initiative is in its final stage after several rounds of pilots. The Swedish National Library launched LibrisXL in June 2018, which is the first linked data system to replace the core cataloging model in integrated library system. Consumption of existing linked data is a very important part of practice. Casalini, LC's Providers vocabulary, and the LD4 Community Working Group on Reconciliation are all committed to this. MARC 21's new 758 field is also for this. At the same time, the library community participates in the construction of linked data infrastructure to facilitate data sharing and consumption. Programs include LC's linked data service (id.loc.gov), Virtual International Authority File (VIAF), RDA Reference Vocabulary and LD4's extension of BIBFRAME vocabulary, etc. 1fig. 43 refs.
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