文章摘要

陈力.中国古代活字印刷术新论(下)[J].中国图书馆学报,2019,45(3):4~13
中国古代活字印刷术新论(下)
A New View on Ancient Chinese Movable Type Printing (Ⅱ)
投稿时间:2019-01-04  
DOI:
中文关键词: 活字印刷术  技术原理  发明时间  社会需求  文化发展  图书史
英文关键词: Movable type printing  Technique  Time of invention  Social demands  Cultural development  History of books
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
陈力 四川大学历史文化学院,四川成都 610064 chenli@nlc.cn,chenli@nlc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      活字印刷在古代中国没有像古代朝鲜和中世纪末期欧洲那样成为文献复制方式的主流,与其自身的特点以及中国封建社会的经济、社会、文化和学术环境相关。活字技术适合一次性印刷大批量书籍,不如雕版技术适合长线印刷。中国地域广袤,除中央机构刻印书籍外,地方印书业也比较发达,官府、书院、私人等都刻印或覆刻书籍,一次性印量有限,多采用雕版技术长线印刷。古代朝鲜在学习了中国的活字印刷技术之后,与其社会特点与需要相结合,得到了广泛应用。古代朝鲜中央设立书籍院,铸造活字,统一负责图书印刷并发放至地方,活字技术正好适合大批量图书的印刷。与同时期中国封建社会环境不同的是,15世纪中叶德国人谷腾堡发明铅合金活字时,正值欧洲宗教改革和工业革命的前夜,活字印刷适应了文艺复兴和宗教改革运动对文献印刷和传播的需要,社会结构、工商业环境、资本市场的变化以及出版企业化等因素,推动了活字印刷在欧洲的广泛应用和迅速发展。活字印刷术虽然在中国古代并未成为图书出版的主流,但它仍在传播文化领域发挥了重要的作用,与雕版印刷术一道,构成了中华民族对全人类最伟大的贡献之一。参考文献22。
英文摘要:
The movable type printing did not become the mainstream of document duplication in ancient China due to its characteristics and social environment. At the same time, in ancient Korea and at the end of Middle Ages in Europe, movable type printing was more popular. Movable type printing was fit for mass printing, but not as appropriate for long term printing of the same book as woodblock printing. China's vast territory made the cost of central printing and transporting too high, so local printing industry was more developed. Local governments, academies and individuals all printed books. Woodblock printing was widely used because of limited print run and long term printing. Therefore, movable type printing did not apply to the feudal Chinese society. Learning from Chinese movable type printing, the ancient Korea combined it with local characteristics and movable type printing was widely applied. The Korea set up the Central Book Academy responsible for the movable type casting, and printing and distribution of printed books. The movable type printing is exactly suitable for mass production of books.
Different from contemporary Chinese feudal social environment, the Europe in the middle of fifteenth century when Johannes Gutenberg (1397-1468, German) invented type metal was just on the eve of European religious and industrial revolution. Social structure and commercial and industrial environment including capital market were changing. Capitalist management mode also promoted printing and publishing to develop from workshop to modern enterprise. Besides, alphabetic writing is more appropriate for movable typesetting than Chinese characters. All those factors facilitated the application and development of movable type printing in Europe.
Although movable type printing was not the mainstream of printing in ancient China, it still played a significant role in cultural communication. The movable type printing and woodblock printing are among the greatest contributions of the Chinese to the world. 22 refs.
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