文章摘要

肖雪,苗美娟.美国公共图书馆老年服务:历史与启示[J].中国图书馆学报,2019,45(1):95~109
美国公共图书馆老年服务:历史与启示
Library Service to Older Adults in America: History and Insights
投稿时间:2018-06-30  修订日期:2019-01-02
DOI:
中文关键词: 公共图书馆  老年服务  发展历程  历史研究  美国
英文关键词: Public library  Service to older adults  Service history  Historic research  America
基金项目:本文系国家社会科学基金项目“基于读者数据挖掘的图书馆阅读社群构建研究”(编号:17BTQ079)的研究成果之一
作者单位E-mail
肖雪 南开大学商学院信息资源管理系 天津 300071 xiaoxue@nankai.edu.cn,xiaoxue@nankai.edu.cn 
苗美娟 北京大学信息管理系 北京 100871  
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中文摘要:
      美国公共图书馆老年服务自20世纪40年代开始启动,至今已经历了70余年的发展。根据图书馆老年服务的历史发展重点和特点变化,可将其发展历程划分为四个阶段:起步阶段(1941年至1960年代末)、深入探索阶段(1970年代初至1980年代末)、服务转向阶段(1990年代初至2005年)、扩展和创新服务阶段(2005年至今)。面对老年人口不断增长的需求,在白宫老龄会议、经济技术环境变化的影响下,图书馆老年服务不断调整,服务理念逐渐从消极走向积极,服务方式不断更新,服务内容不断丰富,服务保障不断完善。借鉴美国图书馆老年服务发展的经验与教训,我国图书馆界应注意明确对老年服务特殊性的认识;积极参与老龄事务,寻求多方支持;构筑有效的制度体系;将服务立于实证调查基础之上;充分发挥行业组织作用。参考文献77。
英文摘要:
American public library service to older adults has had over 70 years history since 1941 and its development and experience can be an important reference for public libraries in China. The paper aims to review the history, analyzes the characteristics and summarizes the insights for Chinese public libraries. According to the historical development focus and characteristics of library service to older adults, the history can be divided into four periods as follows: 1) Starting period (1941-1960s). The library service to older adults officially started in 1941 in the U.S. and gradually expanded from single library level to library association level. National library service agencies for older people in ALA emerged and corresponding service policy was developed. 2) Deeply exploring period (1970s-1980s). The library community conducted several large scale national and regional surveys on service to older adults in order to examine the status quo of service. Older adults were gradually considered as a distinct group that needs special service design. Information & Referral service emerged.3) Service transforming period (1990s-2005). The service began to transform to Internet based information service, and corresponding regulations were changed accordingly.4) Expanding and innovating service period(2005-Present). Libraries extended service to older adults 50 and over, and emphasized the diversity, activity and creativity of the elderly and provided service accordingly Lifelong learning and creative aging were paid much attention to.
In general, the following characteristics are clearly shown in the process of American library service to older adults:the service concept transformed from the passive to the active, the service measures constantly updated, the service content continuously enriched, and the service support system improved all the time. Through the analysis, insights for libraries in China were concluded: clarifying the understanding of specialty of older adults service, actively participating in the affairs of the elderly, seeking supports, building an effective system, establishing service on the basis of empirical investigation, and fully playing the leading role of a professional organization. 77 refs.
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