文章摘要

赵宇翔,刘周颖,宋士杰.行动者网络理论视角下公众科学项目运作机制的实证探索[J].中国图书馆学报,2018,44(6):59~74
行动者网络理论视角下公众科学项目运作机制的实证探索
An Empirical Investigation on Operation Mechanism for Citizen Science Projects: An Actor Network Theory Perspective
投稿时间:2018-07-23  修订日期:2018-09-03
DOI:
中文关键词: 公众科学  行动者网络理论  运作机制  转译分析
英文关键词: Citizen science  Actor network theory  Operation mechanism  Translation analysis
基金项目:本文系国家自然科学基金面上项目“基于科研众包模式的公众科学项目运作与管理机制研究”(编号:71774083)和国家自然科学基金青年项目“基于行动者网络框架的众包模式设计与管理研究”(编号:71403119)的研究成果之一
作者单位E-mail
赵宇翔 南京理工大学经济管理学院信息管理系教授 江苏 南京 210094 yxzhao@vip.163.com,yxzhao@vip.163.com 
刘周颖 南京理工大学经济管理学院信息管理系硕士研究生 江苏 南京 210094  
宋士杰 南京大学信息管理学院博士研究生 江苏 南京 210094  
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中文摘要:
      公众科学项目旨在借助群体智慧和大众参与来推动科学研究,实现科技创新和科学普及的有效结合。目前,国内外对公众科学项目运作过程中各行动者之间的关系网络及流程机理缺乏深入研究。本文借鉴行动者网络理论,采取开放式访谈的方法,对公众科学项目的运作机制进行实证探索。本研究邀请46名公众科学项目相关的参与者进行访谈,通过对访谈资料的分析,归纳出公众科学项目运作机制网络中所包含的行动者,根据行动者网络转译的四个步骤对公众科学运作过程进行分析,梳理各行动者之间的关系,并确定第三方管理机构为核心行动者。研究发现,公众科学项目运作过程中主要存在个体认知差异、任务设计困难、技术支撑不足、制度缺乏、协调困难和成本限制六个障碍,各行动者的收益主要包括声誉、自我提升和价值实现。针对所存在的问题,本文从招募培训、任务设计和数据管理三个层面对公众科学项目的运作机制提出了相关建议。图2。表3。参考文献36。
英文摘要:
Citizen science projects aim at promoting scientific research with the help of the public, effectively combining the scientific diffusion with the scientific research. The actor network theory emphasizes the principle of generalized symmetry which insists that both non human actors and human actors are important. So far, prior work on the operation mechanism of citizen science projects at home and abroad mainly focuses on the operation process from the perspective of the human actors and the related tasks, while lacking enough attention to the roles of non human actors and the relationship between the actors. The actor network theory can provide an ensemble view to analyze the operation mechanism of citizen science projects. Therefore, in this paper, we explore the operation mechanism of citizen science projects on the basis of the actor network theory, in which the relationship and impact between the actors will be fully examined.
In this paper, we conduct a qualitative interview via a formal protocol. 46 participants who had experience with citizen science projects have been involved in this empirical study. According to the interview data, we identify the actors in the network of citizen science operation mechanism, including the human actors and non-human actors. The human actors include organizations (e.g., scientific research institutions/teams, the third party managerial organizations, and citizen science platforms) and individuals (e.g., general public, researchers, project organizers, task designers, data scientists, platform developers and designers). The non human actors include materials (e.g., training resources, smart ICT devices, internet, and scientific research equipment) and consciousnesses (e.g., knowledge, skills and experience). Then, according to the four steps of translation, we analyze the operation mechanism of citizen science projects accordingly. In the problematization stage, we analyze the relationships between the actors and identify the third party managerial institutions as the core actors. In the interessement stage, we analyze the barriers and benefits during the operation process. The results show that the existing barriers mainly result from the cognitive variance of the actors, the difficulty of task design, the lack of rules and regulations, the insufficient of technical support, the lack of coordination, and the cost constraint. The benefits of the actors include reputation, self enhancement and value achievement. In the enrollment stage, we clarify the key responsibilities that core actors need to undertake. The findings show that, the core actors need to understand the obstacles and benefits clearly and set feasible goals, assigning tasks to the actors on the basis of the operation mechanism of citizen science projects. In the mobilization stage, given that the existing problems, the study provides some practical implications for the operation mechanism of citizen science projects, such as appropriate participants training, task design and data management. In this line, the power of actors can be fully exerted, which may further facilitate the success of citizen science projects. 
Theoretically, this paper systematically investigates the actors that involved in citizen science projects, and explores the operation mechanism of citizen science projects empirically, which may further enrich our understanding on the managerial issues of citizen science research. Practically, this paper can provide important guidance for the operation and design of citizen science projects in various domains. 2 figs. 3 tabs. 36 refs.
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