文章摘要

严承希,王军.数字人文视角:基于符号分析法的宋代政治网络可视化研究[J].中国图书馆学报,2018,44(5):87~103
数字人文视角:基于符号分析法的宋代政治网络可视化研究
Digital Humanistic Perspective: A Study on the Visualization of Political Network in Song Dynasty Based on Symbolic Analysis
投稿时间:2018-06-26  
DOI:
中文关键词: 数字人文  符号分析法  宋代政治  可视化
英文关键词: Digital Humanities.Symbolic analysis.Song Dynasty politics.Visualization.
基金项目:
作者单位
严承希 北京大学信息管理系博士研究生。 北京 100817 
王军 北京大学信息管理系教授博士生导师。 北京 100817 
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中文摘要:
      数字人文的兴起引发了社会人文历史领域的广泛关注,海量的数据资源与新兴的数据分析技术为更高效和宏观地解决人文研究中长期存疑和讨论的主题提供了全新的思维范式。尽管有关数字人文的合理性仍存在诸多争议,但是数据驱动下的跨领域人文计算在人文主义重构活动深度与广度上所展现出的高效性已经被大量项目与实践所证明。本文以宋代政治为例,从数字人文视角出发,借助符号分析方法对哈佛大学“中国历代人物资料库”进行实证探索与可视化分析,结合已有的史学问题和相关观点,从宋代政治整体网络分布特征、核心人物的地位与结构拓扑以及不同时期宋代政治网络的时序政治关系演化模式三个层次,进行逐一分析与讨论,为研究宋代党争政治格局提供了一种新的思考方式,同时也展现了数字人文技术在人文历史领域研究中的可行性与巨大潜能。图8。表5。参考文献40。
英文摘要:
The rise of Digital Humanities has aroused widespread concern in the field of social humanities and history. Although there are controversies about the rationality of the Digital Humanities, it has been proved by many projects and practices that the way of data driven human computing performs quite efficiently on the reconstruction of humanism, both in the depth and breadth. This research has extracted all historical figures and their political relations (“political confrontation” and “political support”) in the period of the Song Dynasty (A. D. 960-1279)from a famous Chinese historical database CBDB (China Biographical Database) built by Harvard University. The labeling for “+/-” relationship and intensity indexing were carried out according to the intimate degree among interpersonal relations, combined with expert knowledge. Furthermore, the relative distribution of positive and negative relations and the degree of network stability were measured by two new variables, namely “confrontation support radio” and “balanced coefficient”. Depending on the theory of symbolic analysis, we provided an empirical exploration in the aspects of the whole network, the status of the core figures and the party structure, and the evolution of the time sequence diagram in different historical periods, to compare and explain several historical problems and viewpoints.
The experiment results show that: 1) the political network in Song Dynasty appears in a unbalanced situation with antagonistic relationships and partisan games among political parties. Influenced by rights, interests and values, the interiors of a party are not unified as a whole. 2) Interestingly, the political network of the Song Dynasty is very similar to the modern social network. Its average distance is in accordance with the Small world Effect and the degree distribution follows the general power distribution, but the average clustering coefficient of the network is significantly lower, which may be related to the lower frequency of personal interactions in ancient groups, or the data distribution in the database. 3) Also, some super chief ministers of state leads in a political network space with the Core Peripherystructure. Their role functionality presents with “prestige effect” in the confrontation network and communicativeness in support network. There may be a great conspiracy relationship between the premier and other supervisory scholar bureaucrats. The party of a premier can be viewed as a premier centered inside out organizational structure in Differential Pattern. Although the political clique in the Song Dynasty is closely related to literary thoughts, its core figures tend to be characterized by a passive behavior. 4) Compared with the Southern Song Dynasty, the political balance coefficient of the Northern Song Dynasty is relatively lower, which indicates that the former's political situation may be even more instable. This results can be attributed to three aspects in the progress of political reform and development in the Song Dynasty, including the deterioration of political form, the imbalance of the official system and the simplification of information channels, which is quite consistent with the existing historical proofs and viewpoints. For the entire evolutional network, the situation of the support and cooperation, in the early Northern Song Dynasty (i.e. before the “Wang Anshi Reform”), is its main feature. As time goes on, the scale of political party dispute expands greatly, but there seems to be no obvious relativity between the temporal evolution and the strength of political relationship. 
Although there are still some problems in this research, it expands the thinking of analysis on Chinese historical and political problems and provides scientific reference and basis for historical and political scholars. 8 figs. 5 tabs. 40 refs.
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