文章摘要

陈庚,白昊卉.我国公共文化场馆免费开放政策检视与反思[J].中国图书馆学报,2018,44(3):52~65
我国公共文化场馆免费开放政策检视与反思
Inspection and Reflection on the Free Open Policy of Public Cultural Venues in China: Centered on the Public Libraries
投稿时间:2018-03-08  
DOI:
中文关键词: 公共文化  公共图书馆  免费开放  政策检视
英文关键词: Public culture  Public libraries  Free access  Policy assessment
基金项目:本文系国家社会科学基金重大项目“公共文化服务体系建设和运行中的财政保障标准与保障方式研究”(编号:13ZD04)的研究成果之一
作者单位
陈庚 武汉大学国家文化发展研究院 湖北 武汉 430072 
白昊卉 武汉大学国家文化发展研究院 湖北 武汉 430072 
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中文摘要:
      以公共图书馆为例,运用文化权利、政策过程理论对我国公共文化场馆免费开放展开政策检视和反思。研究发现,免费开放政策取得重要成效,但亦存在问题:恒定的经费补贴量难以满足免费开放后文化供给量和服务量的增长;经费分担机制未完全落实;按行政层级设计的补贴标准难以关照到不同规模的公共图书馆需要;监督管理和考核评价机制缺失,政策激励约束不足。这主要是因为动态的政策调整和优化未能及时跟进,中央地方事权与支出责任划分不明确、支出责任与财力不匹配以及政策成本高于收益。因此,建议完善分类资助标准,设计多重综合标准;建立完善经费保障的动态调整机制,创新财政保障方式;建立绩效评价体系,形成激励约束机制。表2。参考文献27。
英文摘要:

    The free access policy is a people's livelihood policy that promotes the protection of citizens cultural rights and interests and improvement of social and cultural welfare in the form of state financial subsidies for public cultural venues. In 2011, the public libraries, art galleries, and cultural centers (stations) began to fully implement the free access policy. With the continuous promotion of policies, free access has become a crucial measure in the construction of China's public cultural service system.
At present, academic research on the free access policy is mainly focused on the issue of funding guarantees. They insist that lack of funding guarantees and incomplete mechanisms are two major problems in funding guarantees, and also propose to increase fiscal protection and actively explore suggestions of diversifying expenditure sources system such as government subsidies, social sponsorships, and individual donations and so on. These suggestions are of great value in improving and optimizing the free access funding guarantee mechanism. But the existing research also have some deficiencies like lack of scientific theoretical support and some countermeasures lack of practical operability. And the research mainly focuses on the initial stage of policy implementation. With the continuous policy implementation, relevant research has become less and less.This paper believes that as an ongoing public policy, we must utilize policy process theory to review and rethink the policy periodically, and propose specific and operational recommendations.
This article takes public libraries as an example,and uses official data published by the Statistical Yearbook of the Ministry of Culture, as well as data from Wuhan University's “Culture Frontline” in July August 2016 with 178 municipal, county level public libraries in 31 provinces across the country, and the ongoing observation of 10 Wuhan University National Public Cultural Policy Research and Experimental Bases. The paper applies the qualitative and quantitative research methods under the framework of cultural rights theory and policy process theory to review and reflect the free access policy.
The results indicate that more than 3 100 public libraries in the country have all achieved free accessing and played an important role in ensuring the basic cultural rights and interests of citizens. However,it also revealed some problems such as the constant amount of financial subsidies cannot meet the growth of cultural supply and service after free accessing up, the fund sharing mechanism has not been fully implemented, the subsidy standards designed according to administrative levels are hard to take care of the needs of public libraries of different sizes and the lack of supervision and assessment mechanisms.The reasons for these problems and the lack of timely policy adjustments are related to the unclear division of expenditure responsibilities between the central government and the local authority, and the policy costs are higher than the policy benefits. At last, this paper proposes to improve the classification of funding standards, establish and improve the dynamic adjustment mechanism for funding guarantees, innovate the financial security methods,establish performance evaluation systems and other policy recommendations.
Because it is hard to get the financial data of public libraries completely, there are certain limitations in the analysis of the financial subsidies. However, this article draws lessons from the policy process theory and uses a large amount of empirical survey data to make up the deficiency of scientific theories and data support. As a comprehensive systematic evaluation of the free access policy and corresponding countermeasures, this research has important practical significance for the promotion and optimization of this policy. 2 tabs. 27 refs.

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