文章摘要

罗娇,张晓林.支持文本与数据挖掘的著作权法律政策建议[J].中国图书馆学报,2018,44(3):21~34
支持文本与数据挖掘的著作权法律政策建议
Copyright Legislative Proposal and Policy Advice for Text and Data Mining
投稿时间:2017-10-11  修订日期:2018-03-21
DOI:
中文关键词: 文本挖掘  数据挖掘  著作权  法律政策
英文关键词: Text mining  Data mining  Copyright  Legislative policy
基金项目:本文系国家社会科学基金青年项目“图书馆数字化服务的著作权问题及其解决方案研究”(编号:17CTQ037)的研究成果之一
作者单位E-mail
罗娇 中国科学院文献情报中心 北京 100190 luoj@mail.las.ac.cn,luoj@mail.las.ac.cn 
张晓林 中国科学院文献情报中心 北京 100190  
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中文摘要:
      文本与数据挖掘(TDM)实现了从人工阅读到机器阅读的变革,为创新提供了新的方法和工具,因而在科研界有强烈的应用需求,但也因著作权法方面的不确定性而导致发展受限,实践界试图通过政策声明、司法个案和立法程序来解决TDM所面临的著作权问题。在厘清TDM著作权问题的基础上,本研究结合实践中的应对措施与我国的法律环境,建议通过设立TDM著作权例外、推动“转化性使用”理论的司法适用、借助订购协议强化权利、发展开放获取事业等多种措施来应对TDM面临的著作权问题,为TDM技术的发展与应用提供法律政策支持。图2。参考文献26。
英文摘要:

    Text and Data Mining (TDM) generally refers to mining patterns, trends, and other valuable information from text and data by using automated analysis techniques. It is a computer based process, which derives or organizes information from text or data. TDM is of great value for improving scientific research efficiency, accelerating scientific discoveries, promoting scientific innovations, and realizing economic growth, but it is seriously hampered by market failures, legal uncertainties, and isolated information islands. Copyright uncertainty is the most significant legal obstacle faced by TDM. However, the current domestic researches on this issue focus on tracking the development of foreign countries, and relatively lack localization research on law of China. Therefore, this paper analyzes whether the TDM infringes copyright on Chinese copyright law, and believes that the TDM involves copyright controlled behaviors under certain circumstances, which the statutory infringement exemptions such as copyright exceptions and contract authorizations cannot cover completely. At the same time, combined with the international responses to TDM copyright legal issues and the Copyright Law of China, this paper proposes a legislative proposal and several policy advices.
For the legislative solution, it is recommended to add an TDM exception in the third revision of the Copyright Law of China, and to embody the following content in the clause: 1) it would only apply where justified by non commercial purposes ; 2) it would only benefit users having a lawful access to the data; 3) it would not apply if the analysis output substitutes for the pre existing works or databases; 4) mentioning the sources of the name of authors would not be an obligation; 5) it could not be overridden by contractual terms and technical measures; and 6) it would not apply to tools designed for TDM,and would not affect the application of privacy, confidentiality and special data protections rules.
For non legislative solutions, in order to promote the application and development of TDM, it is recommended to eliminate the copyright uncertainty by following measures: 1) it would respect and protect users who have a lawful access to the data, on the premise that TDM is not an alternative competition with the copyright holders original market; 2) it would understand the TDM from “transformative use” paradigm that developed in the recent judicial cases of US, and would encourage TDM within the scope of fair use; 3) it would draw support from agencies and their alliances, which have excellent negotiation experience, funding capacity and contracting ability, to emphasize that the TDM within the scope of fair uses could not be overridden by contractual terms, and even to strive for more extensive TDM rights in their contracts;4) it would promote the development of open access for a wider application of TDM technology, especially the open access with the licenses of CC by, CC-0, ODC by, ODC-0, etc. 2 figs. 26 refs.

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