文章摘要

赵宇翔.科研众包视角下公众科学项目刍议:概念解析、模式探索及学科机遇[J].中国图书馆学报,2017,43(5):42~56
科研众包视角下公众科学项目刍议:概念解析、模式探索及学科机遇
A Preliminary Exploration on Citizen Science Projects Based on Scientific Crowdsourcing Perspectives:Conceptualization,Pattern Design and Research Opportunities
投稿时间:2017-05-30  
DOI:
中文关键词: 科研众包  公众科学项目  模式设计  数字人文  图书情报学
英文关键词: Scientific crowdsourcing  Citizen Science projects  Pattern design  Digital humanities  Library and Information Science
基金项目:本文系国家自然科学基金青年项目“基于行动者网络框架的众包模式设计与管理研究”(编号:71403119)的成果之一
作者单位E-mail
赵宇翔 南京理工大学经济管理学院信息管理系 江苏 南京 210094 yxzhao@vip.163.com,yxzhao@vip.163.com 
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中文摘要:
      过去十年,公众科学已经从一个新兴概念逐渐演化成互联网环境下群体协作的利器。然而,由于公众科学项目发起主体的多元性、参与方的广泛性和异质性、实施过程的复杂性和动态性,其运行机制和管理方式还有很多难点。科研众包理念是成功开展公众科学项目的前提和重点,因此可以作为公众科学的理论视角去进行概念解析,而对于科研众包类型的解构也将有助于公众科学项目的模式设计。本研究认为基于科研众包类型和公众科学开展环境两个维度,可以有效构建公众科学项目的业务模式并进行业务划分;以“机构观”的思想去驱动、管理并维系公众科学项目的发展,加入第三方组织机构这一实体可以重构公众科学项目的运作模式。而立足于图书情报学科,可以对数字人文类公众科学项目进行深入探索,尤其可以从特色馆藏利用、数字人文平台构建、科研数据管护以及用户激励和培训等方面开展后续工作。图4。表1。参考文献45。
英文摘要:

    Citizen Science is an Internet-enabled mass participation and online collaboration mode,which fully reflects the idea of crowd wisdom and open innovation. To date,the researchers abroad have extensively investigated the citizen science as a research field,while the topic is still at its early stage in China. This paper aims at discussing the conceptualization and pattern design of citizen science projects,and providing some future directions for Library and Information Science researchers.

    The paper firstly reviews the prior studies on citizen science field,and indicates some limitations from theoretical and practical perspectives. Theoretically,many previous studies did not clearly figure out the difference between scientific crowdsourcing and citizen science,which may blur the boundary of conceptualization and lead to some misunderstanding on these two terms. Practically,so far,most of the citizen science projects focus on the nature science disciplines,while paying little attention to the humanities and social sciences,especially for the advancement of digital humanities,citizen science projects may have great potential in facilitating and improving the relevant research themes and topics. Then,the study emphasizes that scientific crowdsourcing can be viewed as the theoretical foundation of citizen science research,which means that the successful conceptualization and design of scientific crowdsourcing mode will better the understanding of citizen science projects. The study elaborates on the key issues of scientific crowdsourcing and core driving forces,and then endeavors to propose a typology on the scientific crowdsourcing into three categories,namely non-emergent,emergent with the quantitative accumulation,and emergent with the qualitative accumulation. Several dimensions are put forward to illustrate the characteristics of the three categories of scientific crowdsourcing.

    Furthermore,the study attempts to examine the specific pattern of citizen science projects based on the scientific crowdsourcing mode proposed above,and two dimensions are used to illustrate the genre of citizen science projects. Later,16 citizen science projects are selected to validate the two-dimension-model and show a good explanatory effect in classifying the various citizen science projects in an academic manner. In addition,the study highlights the organization-based view to reinforce the management and development of citizen science projects,which suggests adding a third-party,i.e.,the organization to conduct the relevant managerial and deploy work,including task design and decomposition,participant incentive and training mechanism,data curation and quality control,etc. A specific operational model with the entities and associations is designed to elaborate on the key steps and issues regarding the successful implementation of citizen science projects. Finally,the paper suggests several research directions from the Library and Information Science (LIS) perspective,indicating that the LIS field should take the opportunity to explore the relevant research topics,especially contributing to the planning and implementation of citizen science projects in the digital humanities domain. 4 figs. 1 tab. 45 refs.

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