文章摘要

刘越男,杨建梁.面向电子文件保存的统一元数据模型的构建[J].中国图书馆学报,2017,43(2):66~79
面向电子文件保存的统一元数据模型的构建
Construction of a Unified Metadata Model for Electronic Records Preservation
投稿时间:2016-12-16  修订日期:2017-02-11
DOI:
中文关键词: 电子文件  数字保存  元数据模型  互操作
英文关键词: Electronic records  Digital preservation  Metadata model  Interoperability
基金项目:本文系2013年教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划“电子文件元数据方案实施策略和方法研究”(编号:NCET-13-0574)的研究成果之一
作者单位
刘越男 中国人民大学信息资源管理学院数据工程与知识工程教育部重点实验室 北京 100872 
杨建梁 中国人民大学信息资源管理学院数据工程与知识工程教育部重点实验室 北京 100872 
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中文摘要:
      元数据是电子文件管理的基本工具,在维护电子文件真实、完整、可用、可理解等方面的重要作用已经得到了广泛关注。目前,国际主流的与电子文件管理相关的元数据模型中,没有任何一个模型的设计初衷是面向电子文件保存的。与此同时,电子文件保存单位元数据管理的需求又在呼唤着统一模型的出现。本文以保护既有应用、支持持续管理、坚守专业原则、采用模块化设计思路等为原则,从业务逻辑、实体及其级次、实体关系等方面对ISO 23081、PREMIS、PRONOM模型予以分析、对比与整合,面向电子文件保存构建元数据模型,主要包括文件、技术环境、责任主体、业务、法规标准五个实体。该模型可以与现有主流模型建立映射,为支持文件保存机构设计元数据应用纲要提供统一的概念基础和体系框架。图8。参考文献29。
英文摘要:

    Metadata is an essential tool for electronic records management and preservation; it has received high attention in maintaining the authenticity,integrity,usability of electronic records and enabling the understanding of information objects. Among the related metadata standards and guidelines,metadata models,which play the role of ‘meta-standards’,can provide a basic framework for both the authorities and the organizations to develop concrete schemes. The most widely used metadata models in records and archives management field include recordkeeping metadata conceptual model of ISO 23081,preservation metadata model of PREMIS and technical environment information model of PRONOM. But none of them initially serves the purpose of the long-term preservation of electronic records,no matter which metadata model is applied in records preservation organizations,some kind of refinement,expansion or adjustment is always needed.

    This paper aims at building a unified metadata model for electronic records preservation through analyzing,comparing and integrating the metadata models of ISO 23081,PREMIS and PRONOM. As an inclusive solution of the existing standards,this unified model provides a common conceptual framework for electronic records preservers to formulate metadata application profile and support metadata reuse between electronic records preservation system and electronic records management system.The construction of unified metadata model starts from the actual demands of electronic records preservation by the way of modular design. By comparison the authors find that the records entity,people (agents) entity,business entity and mandates entity of ISO 23081 metadata model can be successively mapped to the object entity,agent entity,event entity and rights statement entity of PREMIS metadata model; furthermore,the records entity and the object entity can complement each other,so do the business entity and the event entity of these two models. The metadata model of PROMOM enriches the description of the technical environment of electronic records,which has great significance to digital information representation. Compared with PREMIS and PRONOM,ISO 23081 can better support the professional principles including the sustainable management of electronic records and their metadata throughout the records life circle,multi-level description of records and the integration of records and business. Therefore the authors lay the basis of architecture and terminology of the unified metadata model more on ISO 23081 while taking the advantages of the other two. The model is comprised of five entities including records entity,technological environment entity,agent entity,business entity and mandate entity. The records entity has multiple levels including archives collection,fond,series,file and item in managerial dimension,whereas in technical dimension the levels cover representation,computer file and bit stream. The technological environment entity refers to the systems and technologies used in creating,managing,preserving and rendering electronic records. The agent entity refers to the individuals,organizations or automated equipment taking part in creating,managing and utilizing electronic records. The business entity refers to the business of creating,managing and preserving electronic records. The mandates entity refers to the rules that normalize business execution and records access. The relationships between entities are set as attributes of the entities rather than an independent entity.〖JP.

    The unified metadata model for electronic records preservation constructed in this paper,in comparison to ISO 23081,enriches the content of records entity by integrating records preservation business with records creation business and recordkeeping business,and promotes the ability to meet long-term preservation requirements by adding a new technological environment entity. Compared with PREMIS,it turns the object entity into records entity and event entity into business entity,which better reflects the characteristic of records management; moreover,it makes the technological environment an independent entity from object entity. As for PRONOM,the technical components entity can be mapped to the technological environment entity of the unified metadata model,whereas the identifiers entity,intellectual property rights entity,documentation entity and actors entity can be mapped to the attributes of the technological environment entity of the unified metadata model. Some of the findings in this paper need further practical verification. 8 figs. 29 refs.

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