文章摘要

韩毅.非正式交流回归语境下科技评价的融合路径取向[J].中国图书馆学报,2016,42(4):64~74
非正式交流回归语境下科技评价的融合路径取向
The Aggregation Path Orientation of Scientific and Technological Evaluation Under the Revival Context of Informal Communication
投稿时间:2016-02-01  
DOI:10.13530/j.cnki.jlis.164005
中文关键词: 正式交流  非正式交流  科技评价  Altmetrics  融合路径
英文关键词: Formal communication  Informal communication  Scientific and technological evaluation  Altmetrics  Aggregation path
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
韩毅 西南大学计算机与信息科学学院 重庆 400715。 hanyi72@swu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      自期刊和图书主导正式科学交流过程以来,以此为主要对象的科技评价在一定程度上导致了科学交流功能的异化。数字化网络化语境强化了科研人员的主体地位,促使以电子邮件、网络学术社区、个人存档、电子印本文库为主要形式的非正式交流强劲回归,科研数据来源不再局限于正式出版物,科研产出形式更具多样性。因而,科技评价不仅需要根据正式出版物评价其学术影响力,也需要从非正式交流视角评价其社会影响力。Altmetrics的诞生在一定程度上为科技成果的社会影响力评价提供了新的范式与工具。研究表明:Altmetrics的计量结果与传统以引文为基础的科技评价是相互补充关系,两者融合进行综合评价是必由之路,这需要从理论拓展、工具开发及国内外合作等方面展开融合路径研究。参考文献35。
英文摘要:
Since Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society was founded in 1665,formal communication,the main components of which are journals and books,has gradually dominated scientific communication,and scientific and technological evaluation has been,consciously or unconsciously,largely based on various forms of formal communication. Scientific and technological evaluation,dominated by publications in formal communication,has greatly promoted the development of science and technology. However,improper use of the evaluation fuels,to some degree,functional distortion of formal communication,such as scientific and technical workers inevitable pursuit of the quantity of articles and their excessive attention to the ranks of journals,the shift of the focus of the library and information workers as well as the corresponding information management agencies from the process of scientific communication and scientific information itself to the mere carriers of scientific information,and the hindrance to the effective dissemination of scientific information due to the larger scientific and technological publishers’ monopoly on most high-quality resources,etc.
The development of digital network context has provided wide groundings for informal communication,and the powerful return of informal communication through e-mail,online academic community,personal archive,and electronic pre-print archive,is gradually improving human information communication environment,which offers not only new digital recording tools to trace scientific workers’ behaviors in terms of knowledge creation,communication,and utilization,but also new opportunities for the innovation of the scientific and technological evaluation methods and concepts. Scientific communication system consists of two parts,formal and informal ones. The metric techniques based on citation distribution have provided a rigorous academic influence evaluation index system for formal communication. Then it becomes an important topic for scientometrics in the digitalized network context to explore metric characteristics of informal communication and to construct evaluation index systems for its social influence.
The advent of Altmetrics provides a new paradigm and tool to evaluate,to a certain extent,the social influence of scientific and technological achievements. Many practices have provided fundamental initial researches for the development of Altmetrics,such as Altmetrics innovation project by National Information Standards Organization,Altmetrics indicators efficiency research by Higher Education Funding Council for England to explore the influence factors in Research Excellent Framework,Altmetrics value analysis by Wellcome Trust Fund to explore organizational learning and fund strategies through ALMs /Altmetrics,and so on. All those researches demonstrate that Altmetrics is a complement to rather than a substitute for traditional citation-based scientific and technological evaluation. Therefore,the combination of the two for comprehensive evaluation is a must.
In this paper,some strategies and methods are presented to combine Altmetrics and the traditional metrics from the perspectives of theory expansion,tools development and international cooperation,etc. In essence,in the context of comprehensive scientific and technological evaluation,on the one hand,we need to strengthen the theory research based on the scientific communication system and improve Altmetrics index;on the other hand,we need to construct open and interoperable data infrastructure and carry out necessary domestic and international collaboration. 35 refs.
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